Much of New Mexico is subdivided into a grid, the Public Land Survey
System (PLSS) based on townships and ranges. The PLSS is a roughly
gridded network of surveyed lines and monuments; approximate 6-mile
by 6-mile "townships" composed of approximate 1-mile by
Some parcels of land are not subdivided, particularly in the northern
and central parts of the state. Most of these areas are either tribal
lands or are parts of old Spanish land grants.
In New Mexico, townships are numbered either north or south of
a central dividing line, while ranges are numbered east or west
of a central dividing line. To completely describe a township, you
would use both the township and range (eg., the township to the
left is T1N R3W).
Go to http://daihatsu.nmt.edu/waterquality/maps/PLSS.html
to see county maps for the state showing townships and ranges.